Causes of Dementia

Causes of dementia
Last updated: Wednesday, December 03, 2008

The a lot of accepted could could cause of dementia in beforehand adults is Alzheimer’s disease. A German doctor in 1906, Dr Alois Alzheimer, aboriginal declared the disease. He declared appropriate changes in the academician tissue of a woman who had died of an abnormal brainy illness.

Today still, the exact could could cause of Alzheimer’s ache is unknown. However, we apperceive abundant added about what happens in the academician and a amount of accident factors for the affliction accept aswell been identified. The ache action causes structural changes of academician amount and, associated with this, assertive academician chemicals (neurotransmitters) aswell change.

In Alzheimer’s ache the ache action starts in the banausic lobes and from there it spreads to absorb added academician areas. The areas complex in basal processing of acoustic and motor functions are usually spared, as able-bodied as some of the nuclei in the abysmal academician matter. The cerebellum (or baby brain) is aswell analogously spared.

Brain anatomy is disrupted by the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic plaques (NP). Accumulation of NFT and NP causes disruption of the candor of academician beef and leads to academician corpuscle death.

The accident of academician beef leads to neurotransmitter deficits, abnormally the accident of acetylcholine (ACh). Medication that increases the akin of ACh in the academician leads to an advance of anamnesis in Alzheimer’s disease.

Risk factors

The a lot of important accident agency for the development of Alzheimer’s ache is old age. The affliction usually begins afterwards age 55 and the ache doubles every 5 years above age 65. Approximately 8 to 10% of all bodies beforehand than 65 accept Alzheimer’s ache and about 30 to 50% of bodies beforehand than 85 accept the disease.

Women are at hardly added accident of developing Alzheimer’s ache compared with men (1.2 to 1).

Genetic factors aswell accord to the accident for developing AD. The accident for developing the affliction increases 2 to 3 bend accepting one abutting about with AD. A specific gene on chromosome 19 alleged apolipoprotein-E has been articular as a susceptibility marker. APOE has three forms and it is the attendance of the APOE-4 anatomy that is associated with an added accident for the development of AD. Not all humans with APOE-4 advance AD and not all humans with AD backpack this gene. Routine testing for this gene is not recommended by Anamnesis Clinics.

Another and actual attenuate anatomy of abiogenetic bequest is associated with mutations on specific chromosomes. This anatomy of bequest occurs in beneath than 2% of all humans with AD and both the Panorama Anamnesis Clinic and Tygerberg Hospital Anamnesis Clinic are not acquainted of any such cases in the Western Cape. This bequest arrangement is associated with the development of AD in every generation. It aswell tends to advance at an beforehand age.

A history of astringent arch abrasion (loss of alertness of 1 hour or more) is associated with an added accident for AD. This accident increases with the attendance of the APOE-4 gene.

Protective factors

A amount of careful factors accept been identified. Higher apprenticeship levels are associated with lower ante of AD. Long-term use of anti-inflammatory agents is associated with a decreased amount of the illness. The aforementioned has been declared in postmenopausal women who use oestrogen in the anatomy of hormone backup therapy.