Geography gold industry
All that shows the economic value ore minerals are called useful. Most of them are at the same time and raw materials, for industrial processing to be incorporated into the finished product, on which occasion also change their shape and they are also a natural resource which is used as the mineral resources or more common word, that the mineral wealth.
Putting their worth by extracting from the basement, is made by the mining industry, which uses a range of appropriate processes.
Nowadays, the continuous rise of world population and incessant improvement of technology demand an ever greater consumption of useful minerals, causing a real “mining expansion” neincetand application of new methods of research and production, preparation and industrialization.
Worldwide, however, that the mining industry is highly differentiated technical level. Most products are involved in the underground circuit of world trade. Almost half of world trade volume is occupied by fuel (oil and coal) metale.In followed by iron and other developed countries economically, mining has a very high percentage, while it is also consuming raw materials. Constitiue mining industry in any country where such resources can be found a key branch of the economy.
In terms of economic use of these metals can be grouped into: metallic minerals (which in turn are divided into ferrous minerals and ferrous minerals) and non-metallic minerals. Ferrous minerals are part of the basic ores or colored light nuclear ores and precious or noble gold, silver and platinum ores.
Gold was the first metal known and used several millennia BC because their property is: is unalterable and can be found in the native state. Ancient peoples made of him their jewelry and other adornments. Since that time appeared distant sources tend to grab gold. Expeditions of Darius, Alexander the Great, the Roman occupation of Dacia, and later conquistadors were so many examples of actions in this regard. “Gold Rush” has led to a rush for riches. At the same time the metal has played a leading role in monetary history, especially since the second half of last century, when most of the states have adopted monometallism gold as the national monetary system.
The uses are varied gold as gold is refined in alloys or chemical compounds.
Refined gold is called fine gold. It is very pure, containing 99.99% gold (24 carat gold that is). Carat indicates, therefore, the proportion of gold content of its alloys, manifesting in the form of parts gold to 24 parts alloy. So for example, 12 carat gold contains only 50% gold and 75% at the 18-carat gold. More commonly is seen in 18 carat gold and the carat de14, who then teamed up with silver (at a rate of 41.65%) and gold (58.35%). For the measure of money supply which is used for precious metal ounce equals 31.103 grams 479. Fine gold alloys is employed in electroplating, in X-ray equipment in the lab, the international currency (currency equivalent), making a statement of the gold to be kept as reserves to be used international currency and financial relations.
The most common alloys are made with silver, copper or both, nickel, platinum, iridium, some of them used in dentistry. The most ancient use but was in jewelry. It is manufactured in various forms by casting, engraving, inlay, filigree. Gold finds applications in medical treatments (auroterapie) in rheumatic diseases, tuberculosis and other diseases, laboratory fabrication of objects in electrodeposition.
But, as predicted, gold has gained a leading role as a universal standard, intermediate in the exchange of goods. Gold standard therefore gives a price, expressed in a currency. Hence the quality that has a monetary standard, achieved through its exceptional properties that do not have any metal: it may well treasure, since it is attacked by physical and chemical agents, has universal qualities in any place could be extracted can be easily transported, because in a small volume high value concentrate, can not be faked, easily recognized and is perfectly divisible.
History of use as a tool to exchange gold passed through several stages, since antiquity, in the form of ingots (pure metal blocks of a certain shape and weight) and then as a currency. Later, with increasing international trade activities, besides gold metal added a second and move on, since the last century, the system at bimetalist monometalist (gold and silver) which proved unstable system, which determined that, in the late twentieth century, only to be introduced monometallism gold, ie gold-coin standard (“gold standard species”), With this system, every country and in international relations, travel gold
monede.In form of our country bimetalist gold-silver system came into force in 1867 and in 1889 was adopted monometallism gold.
With the accelerated development of international trade, gold coins in circulation is uzau, so even before the First World War, they were replaced by banknotes (currency credit). Under these conditions the major banks issuing banknotes had accumulated large stocks of gold hoard, which he called the “reserve fund”. How banknotes issued but have reached a time in circulation in large amounts, exceeding demand, many countries were forced to seek conversion of banknotes into gold equivalent.
The situation has not improved because the gold standard and the international monetary system was severely disrupted during the First World War and during the capitalist crisis of 1929-1933.In this period, some Western countries have saved huge amounts of this metal. For instance, only U.S. hoarded succeeded at the beginning of World War 2 / 3 of the gold reserves lumii.De here, disturbances have increased. Currency-financial relations must be reorganized in order to ensure a more effective international cooperation. This was the purpose of a conference in 1944 in U.S. currency, to Bretton Woods, on which occasion, in December next year, two international bodies were established: International Monetary Fund (IMF) and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) both the UN specialized agencies
F.M.I. (Which is based in Washington) has as its major objective the development of international cooperation in finance, monetary, world trade based on stable exchange rates, promotion of beneficial regulation of currency operations between its members, eliminating any restrictions on the scope of trade and balances to ensure balance of payments.
Members F.M.I. participate in the maintenance fund at a rate (25% gold and 75% in local currency) which is set in place against that country in the world economy and its degree of development. Romania is a member of F.M.I. 1972.
As for B.I.R.D. (Also called the World Bank), it follows the granting of long term loans, member countries, so that they can “do things their development programs.
But not long after the Bretton Woods agreement, in terms of chronic crisis of capitalism, the gold market as the international monetary system were again disrupted. They appeared deeply felt in balance of trade deficits, especially in the U.S. in England. At the same time the volume was affected and gold reserves of these countries, especially the monetary crisis is deepening the U.S. dollar and pound sterling. This has created serious instability in the trend that has prompted other states to grab gold, which is even worse, the hoarding of it by individuals in capitalist countries. Hoarding are usually in banks in Switzerland to keep the strictest secrecy in banking and financial operations. These situations do not remain without consequences in the capitalist economy and world trade. A significant share of gold hoarded by individuals is industrialized in electronic and space applications in other directions.
Thus, the postwar situation in the gold market has always deteriorated until, in 1971, the international monetary system actually ceased to exist, a phenomenon accompanied by a pronounced imbalance of payments between the U.S. ceilalati and external partners. It then added another fact, namely the constant decrease of the global production of gold in recent years. So, where production in 1970 exceeded 1267 tons, then declined every year, so in 1982 was under 1000 tons. Of this total, almost 80% was produced by South Africa and then Canada, USA, Ghana, Australia (according to some calculations, extraction of gold from the beginning of human history until 1982 was 80 000 tons – without which the Soviet Union 64 000 tonnes produced in that century.).
The situation created when the idea that the power of gold recovery and the international monetary system. Proposed here have been many discussions, opinions, negotiations, proposed solutions. Some are expected to further strengthen the role of gold, and the gradual elimination of other counts on. The latter seems to be the most reasonable solution. Need to establish a monetary stability condition is caused by anchoring a currency and financial system more durable.
Particularly high price of gold makes it to exploit the deposits and a tiny concentration, but many deposits, entered into production heading for burnout, as were those of Canada (whose production had fallen from 139 tonnes in year 1961-53 tonnes in 1978), Australia. Even South Africa, probavil the richest state in gold production is restricted due expoatarii become increasingly more difficult and the concentration was extremely low (from 1000 tons in 1970 to 706 tonnes in 1978). During that others have emerged through the discovery of new gold deposits, such as Japan, New Guinea, Philippines. These were offset declining production from other countries so that global production stagnated at around 1 400 tonnes – 1600 tonnes.