The work of Newton, and experience of the prism and its variants, was the basis for a conceptualization of color. Color is a matter or a fraction of light. The color has no existence in itself. It is a sensation. The color is “a feeling received through our eyes the vision of a colorful element.” Thus, the color is absolutely related to four aspects: the nature of the object, the light, the eye and a learning mechanism.
It is common that three dimensions are associated with color ie the color (or tone, color), luminance (or brightness, transmission, reflection, value or lightness) and saturation (or purity). The color is determined colorimetrically as the dominant wavelength of the color in question. It is the range of coloration. It corresponds to the position of the color on the color wheel. The colors are perceived as discrete psychological categories. They are qualitative. They do not vary along a continuum quantity. Thus, this characteristic is reflected in everyday language by adjectives such as purple, blue, green, yellow, orange and red or a combination such as blue-green, red, purple, etc.. Black, white and gray are not a shade although they are often referred to as colors. The term corresponding to hue, used by psychophysiologists to characterize the sensory response of the subject is tone.
In contrast to the hue, luminance is a continuous dimension. It is a characteristic of intensity of the color measured photometrically. It corresponds to the amount of light reflected color. The colors were clear with low-quality black, as if the black was mixed with pigment. It is expressed in everyday language, to a light source, by the strong or weak adjectives and the noun light. For an object, this feature is reflected in the adjectives light and dark and the substantive clarity (Déribéré, 1964). The psychophysiologists use the term “epiphany” and “leucas” to designate the sensory response of individuals to the brightness and clarity.
Such as luminance, saturation is a dimension contained. It indicates how the color approaches considered more or less pure color matching. It is the degree to which the color is present. Photometrically appreciated this feature is called purity factor. In everyday language, it translates the word adjectives and purity: pure, saturated, washed in white short or washed. Thus, a highly saturated color is white appearance, as if mixed with white. As against a low-saturated color is black in appearance, as if mixed with black. The saturation psychophysiologists use the term to characterize the sensory response of the individual.
The dominant wavelength and purity are the chromaticity of the light or object. This corresponds, in psychophysiological, the chroma. It is worth noting also that if the color of an object is both clear and full, it is said to live. If the color of a body is both clear and washed, it is called pale (near white). If the color of a body is both dark and saturated, it is called deep. If the color of a body is both dark and washed, it is folded back (near the black).
Several types of color are relevant to marketing. We find the spectral classification, classification and cool colors warm colors, the color classification “honest” and colors “dishonest”, the heraldic colors and occupational classifications. The spectral classification is based on the work of Newton (1704) which shows that the blue, green and red are the three primary colors whose mixture may provide virtually any color. Warm colors have a wavelength range. Yellow, orange-yellow, orange, red-orange, red, red-purple are warm colors. As against the cool colors have a short wavelength. The blue-violet, blue, blue-green, green, yellow-green are cool colors. The blue color is the coldest. Red is the hottest color. The third classification discriminates against honest colors namely black, white, gray, brown and blue colors tell other dishonest such as red, green and yellow. The fourth classification is the classification heraldry. It distinguishes two groups of colors namely metals (silver, gold) and the main colors or enamels. The enamels are the blue (no pure blue violet), the Gules (red), the Vert (Green franc), purple (a mix of purple or blue and red) and sand (black). Occupational classifications of color have been developed in order to standardize the use of color. We distinguish the RGB system, the system … XYZ, the one most used is the Munsell system.
Color can be a marketing tool saw its multiple effects on the individual. Indeed, it was shown that the color creates physiological reactions, emotional, cognitive and behavioral. Essentially, the physiological reactions are the contraction / relaxation of muscles, pupil dilation, blood pressure, respiratory rate, visual fatigue and discomfort. Emotional responses may be in the form of pleasure, stimulation, anxiety, tension and mood positively or negatively. The reactions are cognitive evaluation and attitude vis-à-vis the product, beliefs, perceived quality of a product and purchase intentions. The color also causes perceptual illusions. It has an effect on the perception of shapes, volumes and surfaces. Finally, behavioral responses are linked to time spent in the sales environment and performance in accomplishing a task.